[Webmaster’s note: This article offers an Historicist view (of the Reformation, Geneva Bible) regarding Daniel’s Prophecy of 70 Weeks and Revelation. It is not necessarily endorsed by all contributors to this website.]

(Image: The embalmed corpse of Pope John the XXIII, 1881–1963, St. Peter’s Basilica.)

1. The scriptures warn of a coming enemy of Christ who will persecute and deceive many.

  • Daniel told of a LITTLE HORN who would blaspheme God and persecute (Dan 7:23-25).
  • Paul said a MAN OF SIN would oppose and exalt himself above God (II Thess 2:3-4).
  • John wrote of an ANTICHRIST who would come as antichrists had come (I John 2:18).
  • John described a WOMAN and BEASTS in Revelation, but these will be studied later.

2. This coming enemy of Christ must be revealed and manifested BEFORE Christ returns.

3. The speculations regarding the identity of this coming enemy of Christ have been Legion.

4. There are generally three positions held as to the identity of this enemy of Christ.

  • The PRETERIST position – all prophecy is fulfilled – points at Nero or Titus.
  • The FUTURIST position – all prophecy is future – points at some atheistic “superman”.
  • The HISTORICAL position – prophecy being fulfilled – points at the papacy of Rome.

5. A careful reading of DANIEL’S prophecy will introduce this enemy of Christ to us (Dan 7).

  • Four kingdoms would exist in succession: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome.
  • The fourth – Rome – would develop into ten kingdoms (Dan 7:7, 19-20, 23-24).
  • Another kingdom, diverse from the ten, would arise after the ten (Daniel 7:8, 20, 24).
    • The little horn would be ROMAN, since it grew from the FOURTH beast (Dan 7:7-8).
    • The little horn would develop after Rome was divided into ten kingdoms (Da 7:8,24).
    • The little horn would overthrow three of the Roman kingdoms (Daniel 7:8,20,24).
    • The little horn would be diverse from the ten Roman kingdoms (Daniel 7:24).
    • The little horn would speak great things against the most High (Dan 7:8,11,20,25).
    • The little horn would have the eyes of man and a stout look (Daniel 7:8,20).
    • The little horn would make war with the saints of the most High (Daniel 7:21,25).
    • The little horn would think to change times and laws (Daniel 7:25 cp Daniel 2:21).
    • The little horn would have dominion over the saints for 1260 years (Daniel 7:25).
    • The little horn would lose dominion until Christ destroyed it (Da 7:9-14,21-22,26-27).

6. A careful reading of JOHN’S epistles will describe the antichrist character of this enemy.

  • John is the only scripture writer that uses the expressions antichrist and antichrists.
  • Antichrist. One who claims to be as Christ, but who is actually opposed to Christ.
  • John wrote to those who already knew about the coming of antichrist (I John 2:18).
    • Antichrists were those who left the apostolic doctrine and fellowship (I Jn 2:18-19).
    • They were not atheistic political, military, or economic rulers (I John 2:18-19).
    • They were neither Jews, Masons, nor idolaters; they were Christians (I John 2:19).
    • John repeatedly emphasizes doctrinal purity (I John 2:7 etc.; 2:22-26; 4:1-6).
    • Denying the Father and the Son need not require atheism (Titus 1:16; Jude 3-4).

7. A careful analysis of PAUL’S description of this enemy will provide details (II The 2:1-10).

  • Specific warning is made against deception deferring the man of sin’s coming (2:3).
  • The man of sin will be revealed in conjunction with a FALLING AWAY (II Thess 2:3).
    • A falling away is apostasy from the truth (Luke 8:13; Gal 5:4; Heb 6:6; Rev 2:5).
    • John described this falling away as going out from apostolic doctrine (I Jn 2:18-19)
    • Paul warned of the nature of this apostasy (I Timothy 4:1-3; II Tim 3:1-9; 4:3-5).
    • He is compared to Judas, the son of perdition (John 17:12 cp 12:4-6; Acts 1:20,25).
  • The man of sin will be known by his self-exaltation as God (II Thessalonians 2:4).
    • He will exalt himself AS God, shew himself to BE God, and OPPOSE God.
    • He will sit as God in the professed temple of God (I Cor 3:16,16; Eph 2:20-22).
  • The man of sin will come into power through the working of Satan (II Thess 2:9).
  • The man of sin is a collective term describing the papacy (II Tim 3:17; Hebrews 9:7).
  • The man of sin would be revealed following the removal of a withholding (II The 2:5-8).
    • The Thessalonians knew the thing that withheld the revealing of the man of sin.
    • Paul had told them of these things when he was with them, why the mystery now?
    • The restraint was the Roman Empire and its Caesars keeping power from the popes.
    • Paul did not write it directly to save the church from Roman suspicion (Ac 17:5-8).

8. Observe the consistent agreement among the three descriptions of Daniel, John, and Paul.

9. It is helpful to understand where the popular idea of a future antichrist originated.

  • It was universally held that the hindering of II Thess 2:7 was the Roman Empire.
  • From about 1200 A.D. on the belief grew mightily that the Pope was the antichrist.
  • The saints killed by Rome found consolation that she was the dreaded antichrist.
  • The Jesuits, in order to defuse the Reformation, began teaching a future man of sin.
  • Francisco Ribera (1537-1591), a Jesuit, taught this in a commentary on Revelation.
  • It was not until Irving, Darby, and Scofield (1830-1920) that “Protestants” taught this.


These sample testimonies are raised, not to establish or even confirm the interpretation of scripture, but to show the novelty of the futuristic interpretation that the Holy Spirit restrains a future Antichrist.

Francisco Ribera (1537-1591) was the Jesuit theologian who invented Futurism. He wrote a commentary on Revelation to remove the Papacy from consideration as the Antichrist power. He proposed that Antichrist was a single future individual who would rebuild the temple in Jerusalem, pretend to be God, kill the two witnesses, and conquer the world.

Tertullian (about 200) wrote, “What is the restraining power? What but the Roman State, the breaking up of which, by being scattered into ten kingdoms, shall introduce Antichrist.”

Cyril of Jerusalem (about 300) wrote, “The predicted Antichrist will come when the times of the Roman Empire shall be fulfilled. . . . Ten kings of the Romans shall arise together. . . . Among these the eleventh is Antichrist, who, by magical and wicked artifices, shall seize the Roman power.”

Jerome (Roman; about 400) wrote, “He (Paul) shows that that which restrains is the Roman Empire; for unless it shall have been destroyed, and taken out of the midst, according to the prophet Daniel, Antichrist will not come before that.” “Let us therefore say what all ecclesiastical writers have delivered to us, that when the Roman Empire is destroyed, ten kings will divide the Roman world among themselves, and then will be revealed the man of sin.”

John Gill (Baptist; 1697-1771), commenting on II Thess 2:6, wrote, “By that which withheld, let, or hindered the open appearance of antichrist, were the Roman empire and emperors; these stood in his way, and whilst this empire lasted, and the emperors wore the imperial crown, and sat on the throne, and held the government in their hands, the popes could not come at the height of their ambition, dignity, and authority, nor shine in their glory; nor could the whore of Babylon take her seat, and sit upon the seven hills of Rome until the Roman emperor was taken out of the way: this therefore hindered, that he might be revealed in his time. . . . ‘Only he who now letteth, will let, until he be taken out of the way’; that is, the Roman empire and Roman emperors, and which were by degrees entirely removed, and so made way for the revelation of this wicked one.”

Matthew Poole (Anglican; about 1700), commenting on II Thess 2:6, “Expositors, both popish and protestant, pitch upon the Roman emperor and empire as most probably meant here by the apostle; and therefore he wrote not plainly, lest by writing of the taking away that empire, which the Romans thought to be eternal, he might stir up their hatred against the Christians.” The Roman Empire being “divided into ten distinct kingdoms under distinct governments . . . and Italy and Rome wholly in the pope’s possession: and hence this man of sin hath been long since revealed.”

Matthew Henry (Anglican; about 1700), commenting on II Thess 2:6, “There was something that hindered or withheld, or let, until it was taken away. This is supposed to be the power of the Roman empire, which the apostle did not think fit to mention more plainly at that time; and it is notorious that, while this power continued, it prevented the advances of the bishops of Rome to that height of tyranny to which soon afterwards they arrived.”

Barnes’ Notes On the New Testament (1832-1851), in its comments on II Thessalonians 2:6-7, says, “To any one acquainted with the decline and fall of the Roman empire, nothing can be more manifest than the correspondence of the facts in history respecting the rise of the papacy, and the statement of the apostle Paul here. … In all history there cannot, probably, be found a series of events corresponding more accurately with a prophetic statement than this; and there is every evidence, therefore, that these are the events to which the Spirit of inspiration referred.”

Whedon’s Commentary On the New Testament (1875), in its comments on II Thessalonians 2:6-8, says, “Now there is a universal Christian tradition, held in the Greek, Roman, and Protestant Churches alike, which explains both the hinderer and the reason for this mysterious silence. The hindering thing was the Roman empire, and the hindering person was the emperor. And says Chrysostom, ‘If St. Paul had said that the Roman empire was to be destroyed, the heathen would have destroyed him as a rebel, and all the faithful with him as persons who took up arms against the Roman empire’. . . . The Roman-pagan empire must disappear, before the Roman-papal power can disclose itself. The Roman emperor must cease before the Roman pope can commence supremacy.”

Encyclopedia Britannica (1961) says that the power which was “universally” believed by the Christians to be that which was retarding the revelation of the Antichrist was the Roman Empire.”


These sample testimonies are raised, not to establish or even confirm the interpretation of scripture, but to show the novelty of the futuristic interpretation that the man of sin is yet to be revealed.

The Treatise On Antichrist (Waldensians; 1120) states, “According to the apostle we may truly say, This is that man of sin complete, that lifts up himself against all that is called God, or worshipped, and that setteth himself in opposition against all truth, sitting down in the Temple of God, that is in his church, and shewing forth himself as if he were God, being come with all manner of deceivableness for those that perish, and since he is truly come, he must no longer be looked for; for he is grown old already by God’s permission.”

Eberhard II (Catholic; 1240) stated, “Ten kings exist at the same time, who have divided the circle of the earth, formerly the Roman empire. . . . And a little horn has sprung up under these, which has eyes and a mouth speaking great things. . . . With an unendurable lordship he plagues the people of Christ, and the saints of God; he mingles divine and human things, he sets in motion the abominable and the detestable things. What is more clear than this prophecy? All the signs and wonders which that heavenly teacher of ours pointed out to us have been fulfilled long ago.”

John Wycliffe (1380) said, “Why is it necessary in unbelief to look for another Antichrist? Hence in … Daniel Antichrist is forcefully described by a horn arising in the time of the fourth kingdom.”

John Huss (1415) said, “Surely now the wickedness, iniquity, and baseness of Antichrist has been revealed in the Pope and his associates in the Council.”

Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531) [great Swiss reformer quoted on Dec. 28, 1524] said, “I know that in it works the might and power of the Devil, that is, of the Antichrist… the Papacy has to be abolished… But by no other means can it be more thoroughly routed than by the word of God (2 Thessalonians 2), because as soon as the world receives this in the right way, it will turn away from the Pope without compulsion.” Principle Works of Zwingli, Vol. 7, p. 135.

Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) [Associate of Martin Luther] said, “Since it is certain that the pontiffs and the monks have forbidden marriage, it is most manifest, and true without any doubt, that the Roman Pontiff, with his whole order and kingdom, is very Antichrist. Likewise in 2 Thess. II, Paul clearly says that the man of sin will rule in the church exalting himself above the worship of God, etc.” Translated from Melanchthon, Disputationes, No. 56, “De Matrimonio”, in Opera (Corpus Reformatorum), vol. 12 col. 535

Martin Luther (1520) said, “The man of sin and the son of perdition … by his teaching and his ordinances increases the sin and perdition of souls in the Church; while he yet sits in the Church as if he were God. All these conditions have now for many ages been fulfilled by the papal tyranny.”

John Knox (1505-1572) [Scottish Reformer] preached that Romish traditions and ceremonies should be abolished along with “that tyranny which the Pope himself has for so many ages exercised over the church” and that he should be acknowledged as “the son of perdition, of whom Paul speaks.” In a public challenge he declared: “As for your Roman Church, as it is now corrupted… I no more doubt but that it is the synagogue of Satan, and the head therof, called the Pope, to be the man of sin of whom the apostle speaketh.” Knox, The Zurich Letters, p.199

John Calvin (1509-1564) said, “Some persons think us too severe and censorious when we call the Roman pontiff Antichrist. But those who are of this opinion do not consider that they bring the same charge of presumption against Paul himself. … I shall briefly show that (Paul’s words in II Thess 2) are not capable of any other interpretation than that which applies them to the Papacy.”

The King James translators (1611), in their preface, wrote, “The zeal of Your Majesty toward the house of God, manifesting itself abroad in the farthest parts of Christendom, by writing in defence of the Truth, (which hath given such a blow unto that man of sin, as will not be healed.)”

The Westminster Confession of Faith (Presbyterian; 1646), in dealing with the church, states, “Nor can the Pope of Rome in any sense be the head thereof; but is that antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the church against Christ, and all that is called God.”

The Philadelphia Confession of Faith (Baptist; 1742), in dealing with the church, states, “Nor can the pope of Rome, in any sense, be head thereof, but is (2 Thess. ii. 2-9) that antichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the church against Christ, and all that is called God; whom the Lord shall destroy with the brightness of his coming.”

John Gill (Baptist; 1697-1771), in commenting on II Thessalonians 2:3, wrote, “So here it intends the whole hierarchy of Rome, monks, friars, priests, bishops, archbishops, cardinals, and especially popes, who may well be called the man of sin, because notoriously sinful.”

Jonathan Edwards (Congregationalist; 1703-1758) wrote, “The rise of Antichrist was gradual. The Christian church corrupted itself in many things. . . . The clergy in general, and especially the bishop of Rome, assumed more and more authority to himself. . . . See how well this agrees with the prophecies, 2 Thess. ii. 3,4. Dan. vii. 20,21. Rev. xiii. 6,7. and chap. xvii. 3,4.”

Leroy E. Froom; 1890-1974 the noted historian of prophetic interpretation, concludes after nearly three volumes of carefully documented proof for his statement, “The futurist view of an individual Jewish Antichrist was unknown among the Protestants of North America prior to the nineteenth century.”


Pope Pius V blasphemed,  “The Pope and God are the same, so he has all power in Heaven and earth.” (2)

Pope Innocent III said “We may according to the fullness of our power, dispose of the law and dispense above the law. Those whom the Pope of Rome doth separate, it is not a man that separates them but God. For the Pope holdeth place on earth, not simply of a man but of the true God.” (3)

Pope Leo XIII declared, “We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty.” (4)

Pope Boniface VIII said “We declare, assert, define and pronounce to be subject to the Roman Pontiff is to every creature altogether necessary for salvation… I have the authority of the King of Kings. I am all in all, and above all, so that God Himself and I, the Vicar of Christ, have but one consistory, and I am able to do almost all that God can do. What therefore, can you make of me but God?” (5)

Pope Pius IX said, “I alone… am the successor of the apostles, the vicar of Jesus Christ. I am the way, the truth, and the life…” (6)

Pope Pius X declared, “The Pope is not simply the representative of Jesus Christ. On the contrary, he is Jesus Christ Himself, under the veil of the flesh. Does the Pope speak? It is Jesus Christ who is speaking, hence, when anyone speaks of the Pope, it is not necessary to examine but to obey.” (7)

Pope Pius XII said, “…recognize the Holy, Catholic, Roman Church to be the only true Church of Jesus Christ, outside of which neither sanctity nor salvation can be found. Call them to the unity of the one fold, granting them the grace to believe every truth of our holy faith and to submit themselves to the Supreme Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth.”  (8)

Pope John Paul II said, “The truth of the Assumption, defined by Pius XII, is reaffirmed by the Second Vatican Council, which thus expresses the Church’s faith: “Preserved free from all guilt of original sin, the Immaculate Virgin was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory upon the completion of her earthly sojourn. She was exalted by the Lord as Queen of the Universe…For the Mother of Christ is glorified as ‘Queen of the Universe‘.” (9)

The Church… been accustomed to have recourse to that most ready intercessor, her Mother Mary … For as St. Irenaeus says, she ‘has become the cause of salvation for the whole human race.‘” (10)

Pope Pius XI said, “What will it cost you, oh Mary, to hear our prayer? What will it cost you to save us? Has not Jesus placed in your hands all the treasures of His grace and mercy? You sit crowned Queen at the right hand of your son: your dominion reaches as far as the heavens and to you are subject the earth and all creatures dwelling thereon. Your dominion reaches even down into the abyss of hell, and you alone, oh Mary, save us from the hands of Satan.” (11)

Pope Benedict XV declared, “To such extent did Mary suffer and almost die with her suffering and dying Son; to such extent did she surrender her maternal rights over her Son for: man’s salvation . . that we may rightly say she redeemed the human race together with Christ.” (12)

God has committed to her the treasury of all good things, in order that everyone may know that through her are obtained every hope, every grace, and all salvation. For this is his will, that we obtain everything through Mary.” (Pope Pius IX: Encycl., Ubi primum, February 2, 1849.) — [p. 12, number 12]

O Virgin most holy, none abounds in the knowledge of God except through thee; none, O Mother of God, obtains salvation except through thee, none receives a gift from the throne of mercy except through thee.” (Pope Leo XIII: Encycl., Adiutricem populi, September 5, 1895.) — [p. 12, no. 13]

If it is impossible to separate what God has united, it is also certain that you cannot find Jesus except with Mary and through Mary.” (Pope Pius X: Allocution to the Franciscans, November 12, 1910.) — [p. 14, no. 20]

Every day, as the Church herself recommends, priests will recite the Holy Rosary, which, by proposing for our meditation the mysteries of the Redeemer, leads us to Jesus through Mary.” (Pope Pius XII: Exhortation, Menti nostri, September 23, 1950) — [p. 14, no. 23]

Pope Francis I said “You cannot find Jesus outside the Church.” (13)

Pope Innocent III declares, “With our hearts we believe and with our lips we confess but one Church, not that of the heretics, but the Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church, outside which we believe that no one is saved.” (14)

Pope Boniface VIII said, “We declare, assert, define and pronounce to be subject to the Roman Pontiff is to every creature altogether necessary for salvation… I have the authority of the King of Kings. I am all in all, and above all, so that God Himself and I, the Vicar of Christ, have but one consistory, and I am able to do almost all that God can do. What therefore, can you make of me but God?” (15)

Pope Pius IX said, “It must be held by faith that outside the Apostolic Roman Church, no one can be saved;” (16)

Pope Clement VI said, “No man outside obedience to the Pope of Rome can ultimately be saved. All who have raised themselves against the faith of the Roman Church, and died in final impenitence have been damned, and gone down to Hell.” (17)

Pope Leo XII said, “We profess that there is no salvation outside the (Catholic) Church. …For the Church is the pillar and ground of the truth. With reference to those words Augustine says: `If any man be outside the Church he will be excluded from the number of sons, and will not have God for Father since he has not the Church for mother.’” (18)

Pope Leo XIII said, “Remember and understand well that where Peter is, there is the Church; that those who refuse to associate in communion with the Chair of Peter belong to Antichrist, not to Christ. He who would separate himself from the Roman Pontiff has no further bond with Christ.” (19)

Pope Pius XII said, “O Mary Mother of Mercy and Refuge of Sinners! We beseech thee to look with pitying eyes on poor heretics and schismatics. Do thou, who art the Seat of Wisdom, enlighten the minds wretchedly enfolded in the darkness of ignorance and sin, that they may clearly recognize the Holy, Catholic, Roman Church to be the only true Church of Jesus Christ, outside of which neither sanctity nor salvation can be found.” (20)

Pope Pius XII said, “It is absolutely necessary that the Christian community be subject in all things to the Sovereign Pontiff if it wishes to be a part of the divinely-established society founded by our Redeemer.” (21)

Pope Eugene IV said, “No one, let his alms giving be as great as it may, no one, even if he pour out his blood for the Name of Jesus Christ, can be saved unless they abide within the bosom and unity of the Catholic Church.”  (22)

Pope John XXIII said, “Into this fold of Jesus Christ no man may enter unless he be led by the Sovereign Pontiff and only if they be united to him can men be saved…” (23)

Pope Innocent III declared, “to be reproved are those who translate into French the Gospels, the letters of Paul, the psalter, etc. They are moved by a certain love of Scripture in order to explain them clandestinely and to preach them to one another. The mysteries of the faith are not to (be) explained rashly to anyone. Usually in fact, they cannot be understood by everyone but only by those who are qualified to understand them with informed intelligence. The depth of the divine Scriptures is such that not only the illiterate and uninitiated have difficulty understanding them, but also the educated and the gifted.” (24)

Pope Innocent III decreed, “We prohibit laymen possessing copies of the Old and New Testament. …We forbid them most severely to have the above books in the popular vernacular.” (meaning in their country’s native language, as the Papal Church only allowed their priests to read it in Latin). (25)

Pope Pius IV said, “The Bible is not for the people; whosoever will be saved must renounce it. It is a forbidden book. Bible societies are satanic contrivances.” (26)

Pope Leo XIII declared, “As it has been clearly shown by experience that, if the holy Bible in the vernacular is generally permitted without any distinction, more harm than utility is thereby caused.” (27)

Pope Innocent III  said, “Anyone who attempts to construe a personal view of God which conflicts with (Catholic) church dogma must be burned without pity.”  (28)

Pope Gregory IX said, “The lords of the districts shall carefully seek out the ‘heretics’ in dwellings, hovels, and forests, and even their underground retreats shall be entirely wiped out.” – (29)

Pope Leo XIII said, “But the supreme teacher in the Church is the Roman Pontiff. Union of minds, therefore, requires, together with a perfect accord in the one faith, complete submission and obedience of will to the Church and to the Roman Pontiff, as to God Himself.” (30)

Jesus is my teacher and my pastor, but God, the Father, Abba, is the light and the Creator. This is my Being.  Do you think we are very far apart?” (31)

I then greet and cordially thank you all, dear friends belonging to other religious traditions; first of all the Muslims, who worship the one God, living and merciful, and call upon Him in prayer, and all of you.” (32)

Pope Francis also wrote that the Catholic Church holds “the Jewish people in special regard because their covenant with God has never been revoked.” (33)

Below is what has been declared by Vatican Councils and in their Cathachism:

We define that the Holy Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff hold primacy over the whole world.” (34)

All names which in the Scriptures are applied to Christ, by virtue of which it is established that he is over the church, all the same names are applied to the Pope.” (35)

No one may possess the books of the Old and New Testaments in the Romance language (such as French, Italian, Spanish, etc.), and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after the promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned.” (36)

The Pope takes the place of Jesus Christ on earth…by divine right the Pope has supreme and full power in faith, in morals over each and every pastor and his flock. He is the true vicar, the head of the entire church, the father and teacher of all Christians. He is the infallible ruler, the founder of dogmas, the author of and the judge of councils; the universal ruler of truth, the arbiter of the world, the supreme judge of heaven and earth, the judge of all, being judged by no one, God himself on earth.” (37)

We confess that the Pope has power of changing Scripture and of adding to it, and taking from it according to his will.” (38)


(1) “The Church Historians of England: Reformation Period,by Josiah Pratt, pub. 1856, p.159
(2) Pope Pius V, quoted in Barclay, Cities Petrus Bertanous Chapter XXVII: 218.
(3) Decretals of Gregory IX, Bk. 1, Ch. 3
(4) Pope Leo XIII Encyclical Letter, June 20, 1894
(5) Pope Boniface VIII, Papal bull Unam sanctam, 1302 A.D.
(6) Pope Pius IX , History of the Christian Church, by Henry Charles Sheldon, p. 59.
(7) Pope Pius X, Evangelical Christendom, Vol. 49, Jan 1. 1895 A.D.,  p. 15, “the organ of the Evangelical Alliance,” published in London by J. S. Phillips.
(8) Pope Pius XII, The Raccolta, Benzinger Brothers, Boston, 1957 A.D., No. 626.
(9) Pope John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater (On the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Life of the Pilgrim Church), Encyclical promulgated on 03-25-1987, #41.
(10) Pope Paul VI, Christi Matri
(11) Pope Benedict XV , Quas Primas (On the Feast of Christ the King), Encyclical promulgated on 12-11-1925, #18.
(12) Pope Benedict XV, Inter Sodalicia, 1918
(13) Pope Francis I , EWTN Global Catholic News,  pronounced on April 23 in the Apostolic Palace’s Pauline Chapel.
(14) Pope Innocent III, Denzinger 423
(15) Pope Boniface VIII , Papal Bull Unam Sanctam A.D. 1302
(16) Pope Pius IX, Denzinger 1647
(17) Pope Clement VI, “Super Quibusdam,” as cited in “Apostolic Digest, Book V: The Book of Obedience”
(18) Pope Leo XII, Encyclical, Ubi Primum
(19) Pope Leo XIII , Satis Cognitum, quoted in “Acts of Leo XIII: Supreme Pontiff”, Rome: Vatican Press, 1896,
(20) Pope Pius XII, The Raccolta, Benzinger Brothers, Boston, 1957, No. 626.
(21) Pope Pius XII , Orientalis Ecclesiae, quoted in “Acta Apostolicae Sedis”, 36:129
(22) Pope Eugene IV, The Bull Cantate Domino, 1441
(23) Pope John XXIII , Coronation Homily, Nov. 4, 1958.
(24) Pope Innocent III , Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum 770-771
(25) Pope Innocent II, The Council of Toulouse, Canon 14
(26) Pope Pius IV, Catholic Church Council of Trent, Rule III
(27) Pope Leo XIII, Great Encyclical Letters of Leo XIII, pp. 412-413
(28) Pope Innocent III, Papal Bull, 1198 A.D
(29) Pope Gregory IX, Council Tolosanum, 1229 A.D.
(30) Pope Leo XIII, Sapientiae Christianae: On Christians as Citizens, 01-10-1890
(31) Pope Francis, “La Repubblica” Sept. 11, 2013, Interview with Eigenio Scalfari
(32) Pope Francis, Vatican City Speech on 03-20-13
(33) Pope Francis, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium
(34) The Most Holy Councils, Vol. XIII, column 1167.
(35) Robert Bellarmine, On the Authority of Councils, Volume 2: 266.
(36) Council of Tarragona, the Roman Catholic Church Council of 1234 A.D.
(37) Quoted in the New York Catechism.
(38) Roman Catholic Confessions for Protestants Oath, Article XI.